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Mobility and Transport

Energy efficiency indicator


Total energy use by urban transport per passenger km and tonne km (annual average over all modes).



E = Energy consumption rate [MJ/km]
TVpass = Transport volume passenger transport (passenger km) [million passenger km]
TVfre = Transport volume freight transport [million tonne km]
Sjk = Share of fuel type k per vehicle type j [fraction]
Ijk = Energy intensity per distance driven for vehicle type j and fuel type k [l/km or MJ/km or kWh/km]
Aij= Activity volume (distance driven by transport mode I and vehicle type j) [million km per year]
ECk = Fuel energy content for fuel k [MJ/l or MJ/kg]
k = Fuel type [type]
i = Transport mode (passenger car, tram, bus, train, motorcycle, inland vessel, freight train, truck, etc.) [type]
j = Vehicle class (if available specified by model e.g. SUV, etc.) [type]

Data sources

Information needed

Possible specific sources


Advice to fill data gaps and/ or improve data quality

Transport volumes:

  • Total passenger-km and ton-km
  • Vehicle-km of passenger vehicles (or Passenger km per mode)

Vehicle-km of freight vehicles (or tkm per mode)

Information on transport volumes should be based on the information provided in the modal split sheet.


See “{Modal split as Link}”.

  • Setting-up or updating a transport model or conducting statistically representative surveys are the essential ways to fill in the parameters required.
  • In case data is available in terms of pkm (or tkm), the average occupancy factor (or load factor) can be used to estimate the amount of vkm.
  • In case data on vkm for cars is not available, the estimation from an aggregated modelling tool such as the online model Urban Transport Roadmaps ( could be used; this model provides an estimation of vehicle-km travelled by conventional (diesel and gasoline) cars.
  • Concerning vkm by public transport modes, data is usually available at urban level from public transport authorities/ operators providing the service.

Trolley-buses should be categorised as “trams” since they are both electric with similar consumptions.

Energy content for different fuel types

Default values for energy content are provided.



Fuel consumption by vehicle type by fuel type (and Euro Emission standard for gasoline and diesel) (l/vkm, Kg/vkm)

Default values for fuel consumption are provided.



Vehicle fleet composition per vehicle type per fuel type (%)

For vehicle fleet data at country level could be used (if regional or more specific information is not available). Eurostat and ACEA provides information on the fuel types. Other possible sources include national statistics (e.g. national Motor Vehicle Registration Authority) and modelling for Emission Standards.


  • The indicator spreadsheet is developed with the aim of covering the main vehicles categories. If a vehicle category actually exists but is not covered in the spreadsheet, it is suggested to ignore these vehicles type and recalculate the shares on the remaining types which can be filled in the file (in order to sum up with 100%)​. However, the share of categories not included in the file should be quite small.

Vehicle fleet composition per vehicle type for gasoline and diesel per Euro emission class (%)

* The column “Costs” provides a qualitative assessment of the budget (staff costs, time, costs for data acquisition, etc.) needed by a city/ urban area for gathering new quantitative data in absence of already available values. For each parameter, the assessment takes into account both the administrative costs and the costs related to searching, acquisition and processing of the needed data; these can be high (“H”), medium (“M”) or low (“L”), or a combination of a pair of them.



To download the indicator spreadsheet, click

(741.26 KB - XLSX)



To download the indicator spreadsheet, click

(741.26 KB - XLSX)