Concern is focused on the potential health and environmental effects of air pollution from emissions such as oxides of nitrogen (NOx), volatile organic compounds and particulates. The ICAO technical design standards limit emissions of NOx, carbon monoxide (CO) and unburnt hydrocarbons (HFC).
Although there is no specific EU legislation in relation to aviation emissions, the general EU legislation establishing limit values for the concerned pollutants (mainly NOx and particulates in the case of aircraft emissions), being Directive 2008/50/EC on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe and developing legislation, applies at and around airports just as they do everywhere else in the EU.
Likewise, in February 2016, the ICAO developed a CO 2 standard for aircraft with the support of the CAEP. This Standard is a key element of the ICAO’s "basket of measures" aimed at tackling the impact of international aviation on climate change. Compliance with these requirements will become a pre-requisite for the issuance of an aircraft or aircraft engine EASA Type Certificate, which is required to operate aircraft. The standard will be applicable as of 2020.