Skip to main content
Mobility and Transport

Overview

A cycle highway is a high-quality functional cycling route that focuses on encouraging long-distance cycling. It can be made up of cycle lanes, cycle tracks or routes separate from the existing road infrastructure. Variations and alternative names given to cycle highways include superhighways and bicycle roads.

Considerations for applicability

Cyclist icon

Level of cycling

The expected level of cycling influences the suitability and scale of a cycle highway. A cycle highway is a large infrastructural undertaking and so high utilisation should be expected to justify the expense. They are most likely to be suited to Champion cities.

Topography cityscape icon

Urban layout/topography

Cycle highways often facilitate longer distance cycling journeys and so steep or indirect sections may discourage cyclists to use the route. Disused railways and canals are often repurposed due to their pre-existing shallow gradients.

People icon

Population

Along popular commuter or student routes, a cycle highway can provide an attractive alternative to other transport modes. As dedicated cycle facilities, cycle highways may also address concerns related to safety for certain population groups, e.g. elderly.

Euro coin icon

Finance resources

Cycle highways are expensive. The total cost will vary significantly depending on the length of the route and the type of construction required. The repurposing of disused mobility corridors will be cheaper than the construction of a new cycle path.

Finance resources Costs of cycle highways built as part of the Cycle City Ambition (CCA) programme in the UK range from €0.84 million /km to €1.64 million /km [1].

Clock icon representing time

Time & human resources

Due to their scale, cycle highways require a significant amount of time and human resources to plan, construct and maintain

Measure impact highlight

3 way arrow representing accessibility

Accessibility

Cycle highways provide mobility corridors that connect regions, residential areas and business districts. They can move a large number of cyclists quickly and comfortably, resulting in improved access.

Note: An overview of the direct and indirect impacts resulting from correctly implemented cycling measures is available in http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6167{Challenges that cities face and how cycling can address them as Link}

In-depth measure analysis, case studies and further guidance

[collapsed title=Detailed description of the measure]

Key features

Cycle highways are known by several terms and can incorporate a number of other cycling measures, including http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6226{Grade Separated Crossings as Link}, http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6202{Cycle Tracks as Link} and http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6210{Traffic Restrictions and Charges as Link}. A definition is provided by the CHIPS (Cycle Highways Innovation for smarter People Transport and Spatial Planning) project:

‘A mobility product that provides a high-quality functional cycling connection. As a backbone of a cycle network, it connects cities and/or suburbs, residential areas and major (work)places and it satisfies its (potential) users.’ (Provincie Vlaams-Brabant, CHIPS project)

Cycle highways have several features:

  • Continuous, long distance routes that facilitate reasonable cycling speeds
  • Independent of existing carriageways and motorised traffic
  • Offer strategic, functional routes that connect residential, commercial and business areas.
  • Integrated into the existing cycling network and other transport modes
  • Bi-directional and have a greater width than a cycle track
  • Often begin in rural areas but can continue into urban areas through green spaces and streets, from which motor vehicles traffic have been excluded. For example, London’s Cycle Superhighways provide cyclists with routes into and across central London.
  • Often have a name, logo, signposting and other branding (Provincie Vlaams-Brabant, CHIPS project).
  • All types of bicycles should be able to easily use the highway, including cargo bikes and pedelecs (Provincie Vlaams-Brabant, CHIPS project).

Function and objectives

Cycle Highways can facilitate daily, long distance cycle journeys. This may be as a regional connection, a commuter route into a business district (La Rochelle) or between residential areas. They have been described as the backbone of the wider cycling network as the cycle highways often connect multiple local networks (Provincie Vlaams-Brabant, CHIPS project).

Cycle highways that prioritise the needs of commuters are known as superhighways and can be found in Copenhagen and London. (Office for cycle superhighways, 2018)

Redundant transport corridors such as railways (La Rochelle) and canals can effectively be repurposed into a cycle highway, as they can provide direct, flat and continuous tracks that often link popular origins and destinations.

Complementary measures

http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6214{Provision of Information and Awareness Raising as Link} campaigns are important activities that promote the use of a cycle highway. They can be supported by the branding of the route.

http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6210{Traffic Restrictions and Charges as Link} on car traffic and priority for cyclist along a cycle highway can also contribute to its success. Influencing a behaviour change is most effective when cycling is comfortable and safe.

Facilities such as http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6219{Cycle Parking as Link} and http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6220{Bicycle Maintenance and Repair Facilities as Link} increase the attractiveness of using a cycle highway. It is also important that businesses offer parking and changing facilities for commuters who cycle. In Copenhagen, the Secretariat for cycle superhighways wants to develop a strategy for getting businesses more involved.

Performance

Cycle highways are effective at increasing connectivity for cyclists by creating transport corridors where road infrastructure did not previously exist (SUTP, Fact Sheet H-06) or by offering a faster alternative to cars or public transport.

Cycle highways can increase the cycling speed from an average of 15km/h to 18km/h and from 18km/h to 24km/h for e-bikes (Rupprecht Consult, 2016). The directness and speed that highways may offer cyclists are an important attraction; The Capital Region of Copenhagen Cycle Superhighways project found that the most common reason (51 %) why people start cycling is because it is faster than using other modes (Office for cycle superhighways, 2011). In London, the Cycle Superhighways have resulted in an increase in the number of cyclists with the East-West route experiencing a 55 % increase in cycle journeys (as of 2018) since its completion in 2016 (London Assembly Transport Committee, 2018).

In the Copenhagen region, the planned 300 km network of cycle highways will contribute an annual reduction of approximately 7,000 tonnes of CO2 due to a modal shift from cars to cyclists (Office for cycle superhighways, 2011). The Goudappel Coffeng traffic model calculates that the provision of cycle highways in the Netherlands will result in a reduction of the number of car and public transport journeys and an increase in bicycle journeys. Furthermore, cycle highways reach their full potential when electric bikes become more widely utilised.

The PASTA (Physical Activity Through Sustainable Transport Approaches) project monitored the health of citizens who switched from a private car to a using a cycle highway for one month. Their physical fitness improved, their body age decreased, and the amount of body fat was reduced by 0.6% - 2% (PASTA project, 2017).

Cycle highways that support cycle tourists can create significant economic benefits for local economies resulting from the money spent by cyclists on accommodation and in local businesses. For example, in the Münsterland region (Germany) cyclists were responsible for around 30% of the total annual income from tourism (BMVBW (ed.). (2002a).

Parameters of success/failure

In the CHIPS project, the project partners have developed a four-stage approach to developing cycle highways. It includes considerations of the planning stage, design and implementation, marketing and evaluating the highway (Provincie Vlaams-Brabant, CHIPS project).

There are a number of similar design features recommended for cycle highways that will maximise the attractiveness of the measure to cyclists. Copenhagen and other municipalities have developed minimum quality standards with regards to their Cycle Superhighway network (City of Copenhagen, 2014). This is important as, by their nature, cycle superhighways often cross municipal boundaries, so it is important that all the municipalities involved construct the superhighways in a common manner.

It is important to ensure a high level of visibility amongst cyclists by keeping sight lines unobstructed and minimising the curvature of the route (SUTP, Fact Sheet H-06). Good visibility should continue into tunnels via bright lighting and design that allows the ends of the tunnel to always be visible. Lighting helps cyclists feel more comfortable due to an increase in perceived safety and actual safety.

As highlighted above in the performance of cycle highways, speed and directness is an attraction of cycle highways and these routes should be designed to allow cyclist speeds of up to 30 km/h with good continuity (SUTP, Fact Sheet H-06). This is especially relevant for the commuter and long distance routes that act as regional connectors.

The experiences of Copenhagen and Nijmegen highlight the importance of cooperation. This can be between regions, municipalities and with stakeholder groups. In Copenhagen, the existence of the Secretariat enabled the collaboration between the municipalities. Furthermore, cooperation and engagement with the rail operators allowed the effective planning and implementation of the network with multi-modal integration in mind. The ability of cyclists to use different transport modes in various combinations, depending on the weather and their other commitments, is another key attraction and a factor of the measures' success. Nijmegen has a strong integrated vision for transport, and to support the uptake of cycling without disrupting motorists, they have considered an alternative route for road traffic. The alternative route acted as a push measure that supported cycling, by removing traffic from busy cycling routes yet ensuring drivers were not significantly affected by the reallocation of some road space and priorities in the city centre.

A good understanding of the local area and engagement with the public are important in identifying the routes that have the highest cycling potential. This may be based on where people live and work and how they travel between these. In the Copenhagen region, the Secretariat always makes evaluations before and after a new route is opened, which involves counting cyclists as well as interviews.

It is important to consider the differences, both legislative and cultural, which mean that the direct transfer of best practices between cities is not always possible. For example, signage needs to reflect local customs and regulations.

As demonstrated in Copenhagen, effective marketing and branding can contribute significantly to the success of a cycle highway. In Nijmegen, a high level of existing cycling and support from the local population were identified as two other factors that contribute towards the success of this measure.

Complementary measures, such as parking and facilities in the workplace are also important. Changing and showering facilities at the workplace are especially important for commuter cyclists. The organisation responsible for the Copenhagen superhighways wants to develop a strategy for getting businesses more involved and taking responsibility in encouraging cycling.

Key lessons for transferability

An independent secretariat responsible for communication, organising financing and overall management (PASTA project, 2017).

Cycle highways are expensive and time-consuming to implement and are often built in stages. Cities should aim to secure funding and support that will facilitate the implementation of the first highways and through to the completion of the network. When the Greater Copenhagen Superhighway concept was seeking funding, the Secretariat highlighted the relatively low cost, the benefits in reducing congestion and the individual and environmental health improvements (PASTA project, 2017).

[/collapsed]

[collapsed title=Infrastructure quality design guidance]

Overall recommendations 

  • Across all aspects of a cycle highway, adequate space must be given to cyclists and lane widths will depend on space available and the volume of expected cyclists.
  • As cycle highways often service a large volume of cyclists over long distance and commuter routes, cargo bikes and electric bikes should be considered. These types of bikes will require more space than regular pedal bikes.
  • The cycleway along the highway should be well-lit.
  • The highway should have a relaxed gradient and a smooth and even surface, utilising an appropriate surface material for the highway's purpose.
  • Continuity is important for cycle highways as cyclists tend to use them to travel longer distances.
  • Grade-separated crossings can enhance continuity and directness.
  • Intersections along a cycle highway should be designed carefully, maximising priority for cyclists and minimising conflict with other transport modes.
  • A region or city starting to implement Cycle Superhighways should start with the routes that have the highest potential, based on where people live and work and how they travel between these.

City practitioners should consult national cycle infrastructure design standards or regulations (where available) regarding the appropriate implementation of cycle highways in the respective Member States.

[/collapsed]

[collapsed title=Case studies]

[collapsed title=Cycle Superhighways - Supercykelstier (Copenhagen, Denmark)]

  • Location: North/North West
  • Population: Large urban area (602,481)
  • Cycling Modal Share: Champion (28%)

Background and context

The Cycle Superhighways were an important element of Copenhagen's Bicycle Track Priority Plan, which was published in autumn 2017. They are seen as regional commuter routes and were considered to be fundamentally important in achieving the city's objective that 50% of trips to work and educational institutions are undertaken by bicycle by 2025. The network now combines all of the municipalities collaborating in the region.

The Cycle Superhighways are the responsibility of a secretariat, which is 75% funded by the Capital Region and 25% funded by the municipalities within the region.

Features

The development of the network is done in collaboration between 23 municipalities in the Greater Copenhagen area. Since 2012, a total of eight Cycle Superhighways have been launched and an additional seven routes are actively being planned. On completion in 2025, the network will consist of 28 routes totalling approximately 500 kms.

The cost of the entire network is estimated to be 2.2 billion Danish Kroner. This amounts to an average cost of three million Danish Kroner or €400,000 per kilometre. As some municipalities seek funding for infrastructure, up to 50% of the costs have come from the state.

copenhagen1.jpg

Superhighways, Capital Region of Denmark

Performance

A socio-economic analysis, which was released in May 2018, shows the effects of a fully implemented network of Cycle Superhighways on society as a whole, concluding that the entire network will have a yearly return of 11%, with the main societal benefits arising from positive health impacts. The national Ministry of Finance has set a yearly return of 4% as the limit to indicate when traffic infrastructure projects are profitable.

It is estimated that a fully implemented network of cycle highways, as defined in the Vision plan', will result in a rise of 3 million new bike trips each year and a total reduction of 750,000 car trips each year. This will result in a CO2 reduction of approximately 1,000 tonnes per year and 34,000 fewer sick days. Since their completion in 2012 and 2013, the first two routes to Albertslund and Farum have experienced a growth in the number of bicycle users of 34% and 61%, respectively (PASTA).

Parameters of success/failure

The development of the network relies on the collaboration between 23 municipalities and the capital region. The financial support of the region has encouraged the municipalities in the region to collaborate. Otherwise, it would be difficult to develop a consistent and coherent network across the region.

Besides the infrastructural changes, the success is, to a large extent, due to the effective marketing and branding of the Cycle Superhighways, which is the responsibility of the Secretariat.

copenhagen2.jpg

Superhighways, Capital Region of Denmark

There has been a noticeable improvement in flow, safety and the experience of the cyclists which fits well with the importance commuters give to travelling in a time-efficient manner. An appreciation of the health benefits is the main motivation for commuters to cycle long distances.

Bike-to-work campaigns have helped encourage commuters to ’test' bicycle commuting. The Secretariat uses marketing and awareness campaigns to promote long-distance cycle commuting. Visibility to the public and in the media has helped commuters view the bicycle as a competitive alternative to other modes of transport.

As the Cycle Superhighways follow similar routes as the rail network and it is free to take bicycles onto the regional trains, this has allowed commuters to be multimodal, depending on the weather and their commitments.

The Secretariat is also active in changing the public's general opinion on how e-bikes could be successfully used for commuting. E-bikes have an even greater potential to introduce people to long-distance bicycle commuting.

Evaluation of the cycle highways is also a key tool in identifying the right measures.

Transferability

To a large extent, Cycle Superhighways are transferable to other regions. The way in which the Cycle Superhighways in the Capital Region in Denmark has been developed could be a model for other regions in which there is not a regional authority responsible for transport links across municipal borders. The secretariat of the Cycle Superhighways of the Capital Region acts as the focal point and facilitator for the development of the cycle superhighway network. Wherever collaboration is required, a municipality needs to take the initiative. This is usually the municipality with the worst problems, such as pollution and congestion. In the case of the Capital Region, this was Copenhagen.

There is already a lot of information exchange between different countries on Cycle Superhighways and there is a lot of potential for learning. The INTERREG project CHIPS (Cycle Highways Innovation for smarter People Transport and Spatial Planning) is a good way to communicate with neighbouring countries.

The design of the infrastructure might also need to change; for example, in Denmark they primarily use single directional bike lanes, whereas bi-directional bike lanes can be used elsewhere.

Key insights and lessons learned

It is important to encourage consistency in the quality of a network of highways to maximise the branding of the network as a łCycle Superhighways'. Good branding and reputation of a network are important to communicate with potential users and politicians. Listening to feedback can be used to identify where improvements might be necessary and so support the future development of the network. The Secretariat has developed a handbook and a point scoring system to evaluate how well the route meets the demands of the qualification measures to be called Superhighway. Such an approach provides clarity for municipalities of what to do if they want a section of cycle lane to be called a Cycle Superhighway.

Cyclists have various reasons for wanting to cycle (especially on cycle highways), and so a local public transport travel planning application should allow cyclists to select from a number of parameters when planning their journeys. This will improve the suitability of the suggested route and may increase the attractiveness of a cycle highway.

A final lesson is that the current financial setup is not sufficiently secure, as financial support from the state must be secured for the continual expansion of the network. Similarly, the long-term financial support for the Secretariat itself is not secure. It is refunded every four years, but, as noted above, it is heavily reliant on the region.

[/collapsed]

[collapsed title=Rijn Waal Pad (Nijmegen, Netherlands)]

  • Location: North/North West
  • Population: 306.000
  • Cycling Modal Share: 24% (Champion City)

Background and context

This measure was implemented to stimulate cycling over longer distances and increase regional accessibility. Usually, up to 10 km is the maximum cycling distance, but through developing these cycle routes, cycling distances can increase to 20 km. This is supported by pedelecs, which are increasing in popularity and acceptance from all target groups.

Features

The highway is a fast cycling route, which comprises 16 km of a regional network of cycling infrastructure. The total planned network length is 80 km and as of 2018, 70 km have been constructed. The route is direct, comfortable and safe.

Cyclists have priority over motorists and pedestrians at intersections and crossings. Where there are rivers and railways, under and overpasses have been built. It is important to ensure that slopes are not too steep.

The width allows two people to ride next to each other, which increases the sociability and attractiveness of the route.

Good lighting is provided throughout the route, including in one tunnel where there are coloured lights that can be changed by users via an app. Safety is also maximised by regular maintenance, which prioritises de-icing in winter.

The exposure of cyclists to pollution is also taken into consideration with lanes being set away from areas of high pollution and traffic where possible.

In general, cycle routes can be considered to cost €1 million per km (implementation), including any tunnels, bridges required. This particular route cost approximately €17 million for 16 km of route. The regional network was agreed in 2008 but only completed 2015. Other routes have been completed in 2018, including a number of bridges. The required planning and coordination between multiple municipalities has taken time.

Performance

Data that has been collected indicates that cycling use has increased over time, but there is still a lot of potential, especially for regional trips. Up until 2018, the focus of previous campaigns has been on the city of Nijmegen, but this will start to expand to the region.

According to a senior policy advisor for mobility in Nijmegen, safety has been increasing for a long time but over the last couple of years it has decreased. This may be caused by more elderly cyclists who are using e-bikes.

The public opinion on fast cycling routes has been positive as people like the infrastructure and safety features of the route. In general, the public is demanding more measures for cycling, better mobility and less pollution, and so measures such as the Rijn Waal Pad are welcomed.

Parameters of success/failure

A strong integrated mobility vision is important. Authorities should provide cars with an alternative route if space is being taken away or they want to encourage less traffic in a certain area. In 2013, a new bridge was constructed in Nijmegen in combination with a ring road around this city. This diverted motor vehicles away from the city centre and allowed a change in priorities inside the ring road with a focus on public transport and cycling. Cars still have access to the urban area, but travel is slow with lower priority.

Other factors that contribute to the success of the measure include:

  • A high level of existing cycling in the city
  • Integrated measures
  • Regional cooperation
  • Strong political leadership, particularly at the local level.
  • Sufficient budget

The right of way awarded to cyclists can cause issues with motor vehicles at intersections.

In Nijmegen, some drivers were not aware of the priorities or were not expecting cyclists to be crossing at certain points, which led to difficulties and dangerous situations. In some situations, they had to reverse the measure where safety was a concern.

Transferability

The measure is transferable, but it is important to have support from the local citizens themselves rather than focusing on a top-down implementation.

It is also important to have enough space available to support the implementation of infrastructure that is safe and comfortable for users of the cycle highway.

Finally, a sufficient budget is required, the route cost €17m to complete.

[/collapsed]

[collapsed title=Green Corridor (La Rochelle, France)]

  • Location: Southern/Mediterranean
  • Population: 220.000
  • Cycling Modal Share: 10% (Champion City)

Background and context

A 1.2 km green corridor (cycle highway) was constructed between the industrial zone of Périgny, situated to the east of the town of La Rochelle, and the Rompsay canal, which connects the district of Rompsay further east to the centre of La Rochelle to the west. This route completes a cycle link between the industrial zone, as well as the village of Périgny to the south of the industrial zone, to the centre of La Rochelle.

couleeverte098_frederic_le_lan_cda_la_rochelle.jpg

The industrial zone of Périgny is a major employment zone of the agglomeration. Cyclists and pedestrians are now able to travel the entire way using the new link and then the canal. In this way, the green corridor also links the cycle networks of the centre of La Rochelle with those of Périgny. The route was constructed on an old railway line, preserving local industrial heritage.

Features

The creation of the cycle route cost €1.2 million.

When the corridor is not in use, the lighting is lowered to only 30% of its full strength but as soon as a pedestrian or cyclist passes the first light, the lighting increases to its full strength.

Almost all of the materials on the old railway line were recycled in the construction of the new cycle route.

It was important to make this new cycle path as attractive as possible, which is why significant landscaping work was undertaken. A tunnel on the route was also decorated by an association of La Rochelle artists, which provides an example of urban culture on the route

Key insights and lessons learned

It is important to involve stakeholders, notably cyclist associations, prior to the implementation of the corridor and afterwards. Issues will often appear following implementation.

[/collapsed]

[collapsed title=EuroVelo routes]

  • Location: EU wide
  • Population: N/A
  • Cycling Modal Share: N/A

Background and context

EuroVelo is a network of 15 long-distance cycle routes across Europe (see figure below). In total, the network consists of over 70,000 km of cycle route and is due to be complete by 2020. It was conceived by the European Cycling Federation (ECF) and its British and Danish partners, in 1995. Since 2007, ECF has been solely responsible for the management of the project. Every three years, the project accepts applications to create new EuroVelo routes and modify existing routes.

eurovel.png

Map of EuroVelo, available at http://www.eurovelo.com/en/eurovelos

The Eurovelo website provides users with a colour coded overview of each route, indicating sections that are complete, undergoing work, and in the planning stage. A large number of resources are available to cyclists wishing to use the routes, including maps, guidebook, online blogs and social media updates.

Features

The network provides high quality cycling routes for a range of users, including daily local cyclists and cycle tourists who are completing month long expeditions. Many cycle tourists are attracted by the historical theme of a number of routes. For example;

  • EuroVelo route 2 links a number of Europe's capital cities.
  • EuroVelo routes 3 and 5 follow ancient pilgrims' trails
  • EuroVelo route 13, named the Iron Curtain Trail, follows border which divided the continent between East and West for half a century.

There are a number of types of EuroVelo routes: certified, developed, under development, and at the planning stage.

  • Certified routes have been tested according to a common methodology that ensures the route is in line with the ECF's European Certification Standard European Certification Standard.
  • Developed routes are sections over 50 km that contain national signage and where information is available on national or regional cycling websites. A further distinction is made when the route incorporates EuroVelo branded signage and information.
  • Routes under development are usable are sections over 50 km that can be used by cyclists, but which contains some parts that require further development.
  • Routes at the planning stage are not fully signposted and may contain dangerous sections.

Performance

The EuroVelo routes promote sustainable travel by supporting millions of cycling trips every year. An estimated 14.50 million overnight cycle trips and 45.54 million day trips are made annually on the EuroVelo network.

Cycle tourists who are attracted to the EuroVelo routes, spend significant amounts of money in local economies, supporting businesses and jobs. As many tourists cycle large sections of EuroVelo routes, accommodation providers and shops benefit all along the routes. A 2012 report on the impact of EuroVelo concluded that an estimated €7 billion direct revenue can be attributed to the EuroVelo network as a cycle tourism product [2].

[/collapsed]

[/collapsed]

Files

[collapsed title=Key guidance, further reading and references]

The Sustainable Urban Transport Project’s factsheet H-06, Rural Cycling

sutp_fact_sheet_h-06_rural_cycling
English
(656.88 KB - PDF)
Descărcați

Transport for London’s ‘International Cycling Infrastructure Best Practice Study’

tfl-international_cycling_infrastructure_best_practice_study
English
(5.08 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

Office for cycle superhighways, 2018

cycle_superhighways_2018
English
(7.84 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

Office for cycle superhighways, 2011

cycle_superhighways_2011
English
(2.48 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

Cycle Highways Innovation for smarter People Transport and Spatial Planning (CHIPS) http://www.nweurope.eu/projects/project-search/cycle-highways-innovatio…

CROW (2017) Design manual for bicycle traffic. Chapter 5

PASTA Consortium (editor) (2017) PASTA Handbook of good practice case studies for promotion of walking and cycling

pasta_handbook_of_good_practice_case_studies_for_promotion_of_walking_and_cycling
English
(2.07 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

FLOW Project (2016). The Role of Walking and Cycling in Reducing Congestion: A Portfolio of Measures. Brussels.

flow_project_a_portfolio_of_measures
English
(8.39 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

London Assembly Transport Committee, 2018, London’s cycling infrastructure

londons_cycling_infrastructure
English
(1.02 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

BMVBW (ed.). (2002a). FahrRad! Nationaler Radverkehrsplan 2002-2012. Massnahmen zur Förderung des Radverkehrs in Deutschland. Berlin, Germany: Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau- und Wohnungswesen

Copenhagen’s guidelines for the design of road cycling projects - Focus on Cycling, Chapter 2 "Sections"

copenhagen_focus_on_cyling
English
(17.53 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

Cycling Embassy of Denmark, New Bicycle Track Priority Plan for Copenhagen, available at: http://www.cycling-embassy.dk/2017/09/15/new-bicycle-track-priority-plan-copenhagen/

[/collapsed]

Footnotes

[1] Taylor I and Hiblin B (2017), Typical Costs of Cycling Interventions: Interim analysis of Cycle City Ambition schemes

typical_costs_of_cycling_interventions_interim_analysis_of_cycle_city_ambition_scheme
English
(1.52 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

[2] The European Cycle Route Network EUROVELO (2012) Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Tourism Study

eurovelo_challenges_and_opportunities_for_sustainable_tourism
English
(5.74 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

[collapsed title=Key guidance, further reading and references]

The Sustainable Urban Transport Project’s factsheet H-06, Rural Cycling

sutp_fact_sheet_h-06_rural_cycling
English
(656.88 KB - PDF)
Descărcați

Transport for London’s ‘International Cycling Infrastructure Best Practice Study’

tfl-international_cycling_infrastructure_best_practice_study
English
(5.08 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

Office for cycle superhighways, 2018

cycle_superhighways_2018
English
(7.84 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

Office for cycle superhighways, 2011

cycle_superhighways_2011
English
(2.48 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

Cycle Highways Innovation for smarter People Transport and Spatial Planning (CHIPS) http://www.nweurope.eu/projects/project-search/cycle-highways-innovatio…

CROW (2017) Design manual for bicycle traffic. Chapter 5

PASTA Consortium (editor) (2017) PASTA Handbook of good practice case studies for promotion of walking and cycling

pasta_handbook_of_good_practice_case_studies_for_promotion_of_walking_and_cycling
English
(2.07 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

FLOW Project (2016). The Role of Walking and Cycling in Reducing Congestion: A Portfolio of Measures. Brussels.

flow_project_a_portfolio_of_measures
English
(8.39 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

London Assembly Transport Committee, 2018, London’s cycling infrastructure

londons_cycling_infrastructure
English
(1.02 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

BMVBW (ed.). (2002a). FahrRad! Nationaler Radverkehrsplan 2002-2012. Massnahmen zur Förderung des Radverkehrs in Deutschland. Berlin, Germany: Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau- und Wohnungswesen

Copenhagen’s guidelines for the design of road cycling projects - Focus on Cycling, Chapter 2 "Sections"

copenhagen_focus_on_cyling
English
(17.53 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

Cycling Embassy of Denmark, New Bicycle Track Priority Plan for Copenhagen, available at: http://www.cycling-embassy.dk/2017/09/15/new-bicycle-track-priority-plan-copenhagen/

[/collapsed]

Footnotes

[1] Taylor I and Hiblin B (2017), Typical Costs of Cycling Interventions: Interim analysis of Cycle City Ambition schemes

typical_costs_of_cycling_interventions_interim_analysis_of_cycle_city_ambition_scheme
English
(1.52 MB - PDF)
Descărcați

[2] The European Cycle Route Network EUROVELO (2012) Challenges and Opportunities for Sustainable Tourism Study

eurovelo_challenges_and_opportunities_for_sustainable_tourism
English
(5.74 MB - PDF)
Descărcați