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Mobility and Transport

Overview

Multi-modal integration enables and encourages travellers to combine two or more forms of transport to complete their journey. In this factsheet, multi-modal integration refers to the integration of cycling with additional forms of transport.

Considerations of applicability

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Level of cycling

Multi-modal integration may be implemented by cities with all levels of cycling. Cycling can be encouraged as the first/last mile solution on journeys when combined with public transport. All passenger transport users stand to benefit from most of the adaptations required and so this measure is suitable for implementation at any stage of cycling mode share.

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Urban layout/topography

Multimodal integration is likely to be beneficial in cities where citizens typically undertake longer journeys to reach their destination, or where the hilly terrain discourages residents and commuters from cycling for their entire journey.

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Population

Multimodal integration can increase the accessibility of public transport nodes and urban destinations for all population groups, including the elderly, commuters, students, children and tourists.

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Finance resources

The financial cost of multi-modal integration depends on the extent of changes required, which can include the provision of bicycle parking, storage for bicycle on public transport vehicles, single ticketing solutions and the provision of information on integrating cycling with public transport journeys.

The Brighton Cycle Hub cost £1.5 million to implement and offers secure bicycle storage and other amenities within the main railway station.

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Time & human resources

It will be necessary to trial any form of new ticketing system and the installation of new ticketing machines may be required, increasing the cost of this measure. Alternatively, standardising ticketing for public transport may lead to longer-term economies of scale.

Measure impact highlight

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Accessibility

Multi-modal integration can greatly assist with the accessibility of a city by making it easier to switch between transport modes during a single journey. Provision of a single ticketing system will further improve the convenience of using multiple modes.

Note: An overview of the direct and indirect impacts resulting from correctly implemented cycling measures is available in http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6167{Challenges that cities face and how cycling can address them as Link}.

In-depth measure analysis, case studies and further guidance
[collapsed title=Detailed description of the measure]

Key features

Multimodal integration refers to the steps taken to enable the use of one or modes of transport (including cycling) to increase access to destinations and to provide an alternative to the use of the private car. Due to the flexibility of cycling, it is well suited to be a first and/or last mile solution for journeys made by public transport. Multi-modal integration essentially makes provisions to accommodate cyclists and enable them to conveniently utilise their bicycle in combination with other transport modes. Multimodal integration measures incorporating cycling may include:

  • Provision of cycling facilities, such as parking and repair stations, close to public transport stops, hubs and interchanges;
  • Adaptations to existing cycle routes to enhance the safety and comfort of cyclists while ensuring adequate, safe and comfortable provision for pedestrians, passenger transport users and motor vehicles;
  • The ability to take bicycles on public transport, including adequate onboard storage; and
  • The introduction of single ticketing systems that allows travellers to use different modes of passenger transport with the same ticket, including the use of shared/rented bicycles.
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The Brighton Cycle Hub at Brighton railway station, Credit: Cyclepods

The focus on multimodal integration is most applicable for journeys over long distances where cycling is less convenient than the private car. By effectively integrating cycling with public transport modes, the accessibility to public transport increases and it becomes possible to use the bicycle to complete part of the journey. This option may be more convenient than by private car.

In addition to cycle-related facilities, cities may choose to introduce a single-ticket travel system which allows travellers to use different modes of passenger transport with only one type of ticket. A single ticketing system will benefit cyclists when accompanied by complementary measures that physically connect the different transport modes and provides information for travellers that covers all complementary modes of transport.

A ticketing system to allow cyclists to use multiple modes of transport on a single ticket will also require updates to infrastructure and technology, such as the payment system and ticketing machines. As a complementary measure, combined information systems that provide details about all transport routes and types would benefit travellers.

Function and objectives

Multi-modal integration is designed to make it easier and more efficient for travellers to get from locations A to B using multiple passenger transport modes.

Complementary measures

As mentioned above, there are a number of measures that can be deployed to support multimodal integration. http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6219{2.1 Cycle parking as Link} facilities can be introduced near to passenger transport stops and/or hubs. This can include bicycle parking and associated storage security measures. It is also important to provide convenient routes for cyclists to travel to and from major transport nodes. This can be achieved through infrastructure measures such as cycle lanes, tracks and highways.

Performance

The main impact of multimodal integration is likely to be a modal shift to cycling and other sustainable modes of transport, such as buses or trains.

Creation of a Cycle Hub in the main railway station in Brighton, UK, provides secure bicycle storage and servicing and repair facilities. The Brighton Cycle Hub is well utilised at 60% of its capacity.

The URBANA single ticket system card was trialled in Ljubljana and incorporated the use of a wide range of public transport modes, including the city's bike sharing scheme. It received 95% support from the public.

Parameters of success or failure

In Ljubljana, the URBANA single ticket system trials found that having one pass for a variety of transport modes meant that travellers were more likely to use (and therefore become accustomed to using) modes of transport that they wouldn't previously have considered.

Key lessons for transferability

A single ticket system is transferable to any city that features more than one mode of passenger transport. It can be challenging to decide who will administer the system, what the costs to implement the system will be and whether complementary measures can be implemented to improve the appeal of multi-modal integration to cyclists.

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[collapsed title=Case studies]

[collapsed title=Cycle Superhighways - Brighton Cycle Hub (Brighton, United Kingdom)]

  • Location: North/North West
  • Population: Large urban area (275,800)
  • Cycling Modal Share: Starter (5%)

Background and context

The development of the Hub was initiated by the Brighton City Council and the local train operator, Southern Rail, which operates the station. Together, they managed the planning for the construction of the Hub, which took time as it was necessary to engage with local stakeholders and obtain funding. The process began with a feasibility study that was undertaken in 2008 and the hub was opened in 2015.

The total cost of the hub was £1.55 million, which was covered by a £650,000 grant from the UK Department for Transport, combined with £450,000 from Southern Rail, £350,000 from Network Rail (the owner and manager of the UK's rail infrastructure) and £100,000 from the City Council [1].

Although the hub is not operated for or by the City Council, they do support and promote it as it is in line with the objectives and policies of central and local government to support cycling in order to reduce local air pollution and obesity.

Features

The Brighton Cycle Hub is situated in Brighton's main railway station and offers secure storage, bicycle servicing and repair, cycling equipment and guided rides. There is also a café that is run by cycling enthusiasts who organise the cycling rides. The presence of the café next to the cycle parking also provides passive surveillance for the facility during the day.

Other features of the cycle hub are listed below:

  • The secure storage element of the Hub was designed and installed by Cyclepods [2], who remain responsible for the maintenance of the access system.
  • On a day-to-day basis, the facility is operated by Southern Rail as part of the rail station and so it is kept clean and subject to security checks in line with the rest of the station.
  • Management of the Hub has been sub-contracted to a property management company.
  • The storage facility within the Hub has room for 500 bicycles in a two-tier storage system. The upper tiers are designed to be easy to use, so they are light in construction and have gas-assisted mechanisms that allow the upper arms to gently lower and lift without the risk of them crashing to the floor. The upper arms also reach all the way to the ground so that bicycles can simply be wheeled onto the arm. The system is easy to use no matter what the age or physical fitness of the cyclist is.
  • The storage facility has a secure entry system, where users can gain access by using their Southern Rail's Key' smartcard allowing rail travellers can use the same card for their train ticket and for accessing the secure bicycle storage.
  • The secure storage itself is free to use [3]. The aim is that the income from the rental of the additional space in the building that houses the Hub, which is currently occupied by a gym, covers the costs of the operation of the facility.
  • The Hub also features a repair station. Cyclists can leave the keys of their bicycle lock and the number of their cycle space at the repair station, and their bike will be serviced while they are away. The cycle repairs are undertaken by the cycle repair shop, which is located within the same building next to the secure cycle storage facility.
  • The café is linked to the shop and acts as a focal point for regular group rides, which cater for all abilities and fitness levels.
  • A local cycle route also ends at the door of the Hub, so the Hub is linked to the cycling network of the city.
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Brighton Cycle Hub, designed and implemented by Cyclepods , Credit: Cyclepods

Performance

The design of the access system and the 'key' smartcard allows the use of the hub to be tracked, which is typically at least 60% on most weekdays, and as well used as the existing cycle racks in the station. Although initially the operators found that there was some reluctance to use the facility due to a lack of familiarity, over time the use of the hub has increased.

A sign of success is that there has been little in the way of complaints or negative publicity, either by users or in the local media. Cyclists can be a vocal group, and the local media are happy to comment on issues locally. Hence, the absence of any negative publicity is seen as positive by operators.

Parameters of success/failure

There are 500 spaces in the hub and a further 300 cycle racks elsewhere in the station, which caters for cyclists with different preferences for cycle parking. High usage of the hub has been helped by the completion of various access points and users becoming more aware of the cycle hub through social media and word-of-mouth. The café and repair shop is also now well established and act as complementary measures that improve that attraction of using the cycle hub.

Transferability

Cycle parking facilities that can support multi-modal integration are transferable. Similar facilities have also been constructed for Southern Rail at other stations in the region, including Dorking, Horsham, Haywards Heath and Lewes. These are smaller than the facility in Brighton, but all have a pump for public use and a repair stand from which cyclists can borrow tools to undertake minor repairs on their bicycles. They are all installed with CCTV, which helps to prevent vandalism and theft and catch any perpetrators. The installation of cycle hubs at the difference train stations demonstrates that it is possible to adapt the facility depending on the size of the station.

The provision of cycle parking facilities at transport nodes can support an existing cycling culture and encourage the uptake of cycling in cities where there is little or no cycling culture.

Key insights and lessons learned

The promotion of the parking facility is an important activity and a budget for promotion, particularly in a new Hub's early phases, should be considered. Promotion through social media and via word-of-mouth have also been important channels that promote the hub. Once implemented, additional services and facilities can be used to promote the hub. For example, a cycling club with ambassadors is operated from the Hub that has hub-specific kit.

The proximity of the hub to Brighton station and the ease of access into the station is also key as it provides users with a convenient location near the station.

It is important to consider the key roles and responsibilities of different operators for managing the parking facility and. As demonstrated described above, a number of organisations are responsible for different aspect of the Brighton Cycle Hub.

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[collapsed title=Lewes Road sustainable transport corridor (Brighton, United Kingdom)]

  • Location: North/North West
  • Population: Large urban area (275,800)
  • Cycling Modal Share: Starter (5%)

Background and context

The Lewes Road is a route that transects Brighton, starting at its centre and connecting areas to the northeast of the city. The route includes three university campuses, terminating at The University of Sussex and passing close to two University of Brighton campuses (Falmer and Moulsecoomb). The route had previously been a dual carriageway and was not used to full potential by motorised traffic.

The City Administration set out with the aim of promoting mode shift by providing improved bus, cycling and pedestrian access along Lewes Road. An initial consultation was held in 2011, followed by a second consultation on the proposed changes in 2012. There was broad support for the changes and the plans were altered to take account of the feedback received. The public consultation which was undertaken assisted with stakeholder engagement and building support for this measure.

Features

The Lewes Road sustainable transport corridor features cycle priority lights, cycle lanes on both sides of the road and bus stop bypasses so that cyclists are able to avoid potential conflicts with buses or pedestrians. Bus lanes were also put in place on both sides of the road, along with new bus shelters with seating and real-time travel information.

Changes to the corridor included:

  • Improvements to the Lewes Road for pedestrians, cyclists and buses;
  • Provision of sustainable travel information and incentives to residents, school children and university students;
  • Upgrades to public transport facilities, including real-time travel information, bus shelters and accessible bus stops.
  • Announcements on buses to alert bus passengers to the presence of cyclists around the bus stops.
  • Work has been undertaken to improve access to railway stations along the route
  • Implementation of a range of softer measures, such as personalised travel planning.

Performance

The Lewes Road Corridor was completed in September 2013 and the effects of the changes have been monitored and reported. Performance data was collated and published in 2013 and again in 2016. The Lewes Road Interim Post-Construction Monitoring Report (Lewes road interim monitoring report (https://ec.europa.eu/transport/sites/default/files/cycling-guidance/lewes road interim monitoring report.pdf), published in 2016 by Brighton and Hove City Council shows the following;

  • 9% increase in the number of passengers boarding buses;
  • General traffic on the Lewes Road decreased by 15%, and a marginal increase in journey times;
  • An increase in the number of cyclists of 13% on average in the first five months of 2015 compared to 2009-11 levels;
  • Improvements in bus punctuality and reliability;
  • Limited impact on accident casualties and air quality;
  • General user satisfaction with the floating bus stops.

There was some evidence of minor traffic displacement onto other routes in the city, but this was not significant. Bicycle counters on the Lewes Road suggested that high levels of cycle use have been maintained since the completion of the scheme. The monitoring of the wider impacts of the scheme was not continued beyond the second monitoring period.

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Image from UK Department for Transport case study of Lewes road, Bus stop bypass

Parameters of success/failure

The first significant factor contributing to the success of the measure was that there was space on the corridor that could be dedicated to public transport and cycle use, while still leaving one lane each way for cars and other road traffic. This is particularly significant because space was needed for the bus stop bypasses in which the bus stop is placed between the bus lane and the cycle lane.

Even though the existing road space was not used to its full capacity, the corridor was still already well used. The presence of the city centre at one end, and various university campuses, places of employment and residential areas along the route, meant that there was already a high transport volume along the corridor. Therefore, there was a significant potential for the increased use of public transport and cycling.

The ability to integrate infrastructure measures with softer measures was considered important to the success of the scheme. For example, personalised travel planning and provision of incentives for students assisted in engaging stakeholders and the public along the route, particularly the university students. Engagement was also considered to be an important factor throughout scheme planning and implementation in preparing people for the scheme and helping them know how to use it.

Transferability

The development of a sustainable transport corridor is possible in other cities, where there is the potential to reallocate space to public transport and cycling. It is also important for there to be existing or potential demand for mobility along the route, as in the Lewes Road Corridor, in addition to appropriate current or planned bus coverage.

Key insights and lessons learned

One of the most important insights was the importance of communication and engagement. As noted above, there were various stages to the consultation with, and engagement of, the local community. This was ongoing throughout the project, from its development to its consultation, and took many forms including regular newsletters to keep residents in particular informed of the progress of the scheme.

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[collapsed title=URBANA card (Ljubljana, Slovenia)]

  • Location: Central Europe
  • Population: 288 250
  • Cycling Modal Share: 11.1%

Background and context

The objective of the URBANA card is to offer inhabitants and visitors of Ljubljana easy access to different public transport services.

Features

The URBANA card combines a number of different tickets into one single system. A smartphone application can also be used in place of a physical card. The URBANA card (or app) replaces cash or tokens and can be used for the following services;

  • City public transport
  • Bike sharing scheme
  • Car parking in certain zones and garages
  • Access to the city library
  • Travel on the city cable-car
  • Travel on tourist boats
  • Access to tourist sites

The URBANA app also provides transport information to allow users to plan their travel and receive traffic updates. There are three versions of the card available;

  1. The yellow URBANA card is not connected to a person and replaces cash or tokens. It is transferable and can be charged at automats called the "Urbanomats".
  2. The green URBANA card also allows upload of monthly tickets (e.g. for public transportation). In this version, the card is personalised but can be transferable in exceptional cases.
  3. The URBANA tourist card is aimed at visitors to the city and supplies information targeted at tourists.

Performance

The card has been rated positively and was found to be supported by 95% of people.

There have been concerns that the card collects and retains a lot of data about card-holders and for this reason, there are some services that cannot be paid for using the URBANA card.

Parameters of success/failure

The ease with which travellers are able to pay for multimodal journeys through the URBANA card or app has successfully encouraged travellers to use modes of transport that they would not otherwise have chosen.

Transferability

A single ticket system like the URBANA card is highly transferable and similar systems exist in other countries, such as the Oyster Card in London. Whether it will be easy to implement is dependent on the regulatory background at a national, regional and local level.

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[collapsed title=Key guidance, further reading and references]

PRESTO / Rupprecht (2010) “Cycling facilities at interchanges"

presto_infrastructure_fact_sheet_on_cycling_facilities_at_interchanges
English
(231.96 KB - PDF)
Download

German Institute of Urban Affairs (2011), Cycling Expertise: Bicycle Parking at Train Stations

difu_cycling_expertise_bicycle_parking_at_train_stations
English
(693.78 KB - PDF)
Download

European Commission (2017) Sustainable Urban Mobility: European policy, Practice and Solutions

sustainable-urban-mobility-european-policy-practice-and-solutions
English
(1.64 MB - PDF)
Download

Brighton and Hove City Council (2016) Lewes Road Interim Post-Construction Monitoring Report

lewes_road_interim_monitoring_report
English
(311.23 KB - PDF)
Download

The Brighton and Hove City Council Lewes Road transport improvements website available at: www.brighton-hove.gov.uk/content/parking-and-travel/travel-transport-an…

Ministry of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy (2014) Promoting Sustainable Mobility CYCLING – French Expertise

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English
(6.65 MB - PDF)
Download

Sustrans (2014) Sustrans Design Manual Chapter 9: Cycle and Rail Integration

sustrans_design_manual_chapter_9_cycle_rail_integration
English
(1.63 MB - PDF)
Download

Information about the Ljubljana URBANA card, available at: http://www.lpp.si/en/single-city-card-urbana

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[1] Brighton & Hove City Council , New Cycle Hub at Brighton Station (2015), available at: https://www.brighton-hove.gov.uk/content/press-release/new-cycle-hub-br… (accessed Januray 2019)

[2] Cyclepods website, Homepage, available at: www.cyclepods.co.uk (accessed Januray 2019)

[3] Cyclepods website, Brighton cycle hun case study, available at: www.cyclepods.co.uk/case-studies/brighton-cycle-hub/ (accessed Januray 2019)