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Mobility and Transport

Cycle measure factsheets

The factsheets have been designed to provide a high-level overview and summarise key information on each of the cycle measures, whilst directing users to key guidance, case study examples, further reading and references. They have been developed through engagement with case study cities and a review of existing guidance and good practice examples.

Each cycle measure factsheet includes the following information:





Name of cycling measure and definition

Considerations for applicability

  • Level of cycling

  • Urban layout/topography

  • Population

  • Finance resources

  • Time & human resources

Measure impact highlight

Key impact resulting from measure implementation – i.e. accessibility, safety, environment, congestion, economy, health, community/social, modal share.

Detailed description of the measures

Key features

Main characteristics of measure - i.e. physical appearance

Function and objectives

Description of the way that the measure will work in practice and the desired outcome of implementation

Range of alternatives

List of other cycle measures that could be considered as an alternative based on similar function and objectives

Complimentary measures

List of other cycle measures that can support and improve the performance of the selected cycle measure


Impacts that can be expected from implementation, including evidence and reference to case studies

Parameters of success or failure

Contextual factors of city/ circumstances required to ensure success and reference to case studies

Includes comments on the transferability of the measure to other cities

Infrastructure quality design guidance

Quality design recommendations for cycle infrastructure*

Case studies

Case study examples of the cycling measure

Case study city characterisation details (population, location, level of cycling)

Key guidance, further reading, and references

Web-enabled hyperlinks and/or PDFs to the relevant EU/national guidance and literature.

*Selected infrastructure measures only


While most cycle measures are transferable to a range of cities, the characteristics of the Member State and city should be considered in order to select appropriate cycle measures and be aware of factors that may influence implementation. As the level of cycling increases in cities, priorities of the city and selection and suitability of cycle measures are likely to vary over time.

It should be acknowledged that among Member States and cities, there are differences in cycling background, institutional settings and the strength of bicycle culture. These factors can affect the level of cycling within a city and the appropriateness of measures selected. There are many countries where the cycling modal share is low and cycling is not a topic in national or urban transport agendas. However, some European countries, such as the Netherlands and Denmark, have a high modal share of cycling and often use cycling embassies to disseminate best practice to other countries/cities. There can also be an inconsistency between the national and city level; for example, a Member State with low cycling modal share may have a city that demonstrates ‘champion’ city level cycling characteristics.

Cycling is usually a part of urban or regional planning, although there is variation in the organisations and authorities responsible, the planning approaches at the national level, and the sources and availability of funding.

EU city case studies

The city case studies developed for this guidance support the cycle measure factsheets by presenting real-world examples of measures that have been implemented in a range of European cities. The following key information has been provided (where available) to help users of the guidance understand the local context behind the city case study examples:

  • Location (general geographic location within Europe):
    • North, North East
    • Southern, Mediterranean
    • Baltics, Central, Eastern
  • City size (population):
    • Small urban area (under 0.1m)
    • Medium urban area (0.1– 0.5m)
    • Large urban area (0.5- 1m)
    • Larger urban area (1-2m)
    • Metropolis (2m+)
  • Cycling modal share:
    • Starter (0-5% cycling modal share, generally poor cycling conditions)
    • Climber (5-20% cycling modal share, poor to good cycling conditions)
    • Champion (20%+ cycling modal share, good cycling conditions)

See{Overview of the guidance as Link} for further details of the case study cities involved in the preparation of this guidance.