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Mobility and Transport

Summary of successful implementation of cycling measures

Through the preparation of city case studies and review of existing studies, key factors for successful implementation of cycling measures in cities have been identified. Those that are considered important include the following:

  • Undertaking appropriate planning;
  • Securing political support;
  • Engaging with stakeholders and the public;
  • Understanding target groups and populations;
  • Identifying and securing finance;
  • Maintenance and management;
  • Effective collection, evaluation, documentation and communication of data; and
  • Delivering quality cycling infrastructure that is fit for purpose.

An overview of the key factors related to successful implementation and relevant key references and literature is provided in the sections below.

[collapsed title=Undertaking appropriate planning]

Cities stressed that the planning stages are instrumental in the success of cycle measure implementation. See http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6197{Preparing city cycling strategies and plans as Link} and http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6199{Developing a cycle network for your city as Link} for further details.

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[collapsed title=Securing political support]

Political support and institutional buy-in to city strategies, visions and infrastructure developments have been identified as crucial factors to drive implementation of cycle measures and contribute to wider public acceptance.

  • CASE STUDY HIGHLIGHT – In Seville (Spain), a network of fully-segregated cycle paths in the city centre was advocated through clear political support, which facilitated quick implementation and increased acceptance.

See also:

CM Bike (2014) Factsheet T-01 Incorporate cycling into city administration

cmb_fact_sheet_t-01_city_administration
English
(850.6 KB - PDF)
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CIVITAS MIMOSA (2013) Enabling Cycling Cities: Ingredients for success (See Chapter 1)

mimosa_enabling_cycling_cities
English
(8.62 MB - PDF)
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CIVITAS (2010) Policy Advice Notes: Cycle-friendly cities - How cities can stimulate the use of bicycles (see Page 8)

civitas_cycle_friendly_cities
English
(1.09 MB - PDF)
Download

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[collapsed title=Engaging with stakeholders and the public]

Stakeholders are those individuals or organisations who may be affected by (primary stakeholders) or have a specific interest in or influence over an activity (secondary stakeholders). They can include transport experts, politicians, academics, the media, residents, and public or private organisations. Through engaging with stakeholders, cities can hope to:

  • Overcome uncertainties and fears, and clarify misunderstandings of those affected;
  • Increase the transparency of an action or measure etc.;
  • Ensure that the public has a stake in the outcome and success of an action or measure; and
  • Enable a method of obtaining feedback, including ideas and critique from a user perspective.

Stakeholders should be engaged with during all stages of the cycling initiatives, from planning and developing cycling strategies for a city, to implementing local infrastructure measures.

  • CASE STUDY HIGHLIGHT – During the planning stages for the Old Shoreham Road cycle track in Brighton (United Kingdom), extensive stakeholder consultation was undertaken on the details of the scheme, which helped to ensure that approval from local residents and potential users was achieved.

See also:

CM Bike (2014) Factsheet T-02 Stakeholder involvement

cmb_fact_sheet_t-02_stakeholder_involvment
English
(1.22 MB - PDF)
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Sustrans (2015) Sustrans Design Manual Chapter 13: Community and stakeholder engagement for infrastructure projects

sustrans_community_and_stakeholders
English
(603.41 KB - PDF)
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CIVITAS (2016) Smart Choices for Cities: Cycling in the City (see Page 20)

smart_choices_for_the_city_cycling_in_the_city
English
(2.19 MB - PDF)
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CIVITAS (2010) Policy Advice Notes: Cycle-friendly cities - How cities can stimulate the use of bicycles (see Page 10)

civitas_cycle_friendly_cities
English
(1.09 MB - PDF)
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CIVITAS MIMOSA (2013) Enabling Cycling Cities: Ingredients for success (See Chapters 4, 5)

mimosa_enabling_cycling_cities
English
(8.62 MB - PDF)
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Tapestry (2005) Making Campaigning for Smarter Choices Work - Guidelines for Local Authorities

tapestry-final-report
English
(1.58 MB - PDF)
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[collapsed title=Understanding target groups/population]

Identifying and understanding the challenges and needs of targets groups and the local population can assist in selecting and designing the most appropriate measures, with the best results. This requirement is closely linked to ‘engaging with stakeholders and the public’ and ‘effective collection, evaluation, documenting and communication of data’. Through the gathering of data and subsequent knowledge on challenges and needs, measures can be implemented with clearly defined target groups in mind, catering for different types of cycle users.

  • CASE STUDY HIGHLIGHT – Malmö (Sweden) implemented a range of promotional and educational measures aimed at different target groups in the city, including ‘Bicycling without age’ (elderly), cycle training for adults, and ‘safari park / Cykelsafari’ which provides space for children to learn and improve cycling skills.

See also:

CIVITAS MIMOSA (2013) Enabling Cycling Cities: Ingredients for success (see Chapter 8)

mimosa_enabling_cycling_cities
English
(8.62 MB - PDF)
Download

CIVITAS (2010) Policy Advice Notes: Cycle-friendly cities - How cities can stimulate the use of bicycles (see Page 10)

civitas_cycle_friendly_cities
English
(1.09 MB - PDF)
Download

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[collapsed title=Identifying and securing finance]

It is important that well-planned and consistently financed cycling measures are implemented to enable the uptake and continued use of cycling in a city. Before a cycling project can begin, the financial implications and requirements must be understood. Whilst cycling measures are typically low-cost compared to other transport measures, cities must still secure funding. Long-term funding is required to retrofit, build, maintain, improve, promote and grow cycling networks in cities.

The EC’s CIVITAS MIMOSA study identified four stages to developing a strong sustainable cycling funding base, which included the following:

  1. Demonstration projects: Implementing trial projects as a way of addressing inertia and fear of change through establishing initial success and laying the groundwork for permanent implementation.
  2. Policy-driven funding: Creating a plan/strategy [SUMPs] and adopting policies to modify the existing transport planning and design process so that cycling is considered in all transport projects.
  3. Routine funding: Identifying a series of independent retrofit projects prioritised in a cycling plan or strategy.
  4. Accelerated success: Following on from initial funding for a bike programme, it is often easier to push for the next level. External competition with other cities may also drive ambition, fuelling increases in funding.

A possible source of funding for cycling infrastructure and cycle projects is revenue from other transport related measures, such as parking or access charges.

  • CASE STUDY HIGHLIGHT – Amsterdam’s (Netherlands) ‘Mobility Fund’ uses a proportion of the revenue from paid parking spaces in the city to fund investments in walking and cycling development. Whilst 38% was spent on running the paid parking scheme and general costs, 39% went to the mobility funds of seven city districts and 23% went to the central mobility fund. From the central mobility fund, an average of €10.8m was spent each year (2012-2016, 37.3%) on cycling and walking.

See also:

ECF - EU Funding Observatory for Cycling

Eltis - EU Funding Sources

CM Bike (2014) Factsheet T-03 Options for financing measures for cycling

cmb_fact_sheet_t-03_financing_cycling
English
(1 MB - PDF)
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CIVITAS (2010) Policy Advice Notes: Cycle-friendly cities - How cities can stimulate the use of bicycles (see Page 7)

civitas_cycle_friendly_cities
English
(1.09 MB - PDF)
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CIVITAS MIMOSA (2013) Enabling Cycling Cities: Ingredients for success (See Chapter 2)

mimosa_enabling_cycling_cities
English
(8.62 MB - PDF)
Download

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[collapsed title=Maintenance and management]

In addition to the implementation of cycling infrastructure and associated facilities, the ongoing maintenance and management of the measures are essential to ensure continued use. This should be accounted for and planned during the planning and design stages, through the selection of appropriate materials and identification of ongoing funding sources. A maintenance plan needs to be developed to ensure that features are regularly checked, updated and/or replaced, ensuring an ongoing high-quality provision of facilities. Funding for maintenance and management of cycling infrastructure/facilities may need to be identified from an alternative source to that used for implementation. See also Identifying and Securing Finance (above).

City of Copenhagen (2013) Focus on cycling: Copenhagen Guidelines for the Design of Road Projects (see Chapter 4)

copenhagen_focus_on_cyling
English
(17.53 MB - PDF)
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Sustrans (2014) Sustrans Design Manual Chapter 15 - Maintenance and management of routes for cyclists

sustrans_maintenance
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(1.4 MB - PDF)
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[collapsed title=Effective collection, evaluation, documentation and communication of data]

The collection, evaluation, documention, and communication of information on cycling and views on cycling in a city are vital. These activities can support evidence-based policy decision making, support engagement and communication with stakeholders, and strengthen funding applications and business plans. City authorities can make informed decisions and are able to better target investments in a way that engages residents, politicians and other stakeholders. It also makes it easier to defend and promote a decision when there is supporting quantitative evidence.

  • CASE STUDY HIGHLIGHT – Tallinn (Estonia) is currently undertaking data collection exercise to identify the state of its cycling infrastructure, including any bottlenecks, shortcomings and quality. Data relating to cycling accidents are also being collected to identify safety issues. Data will be used as a basis for the assessment of the implementation of the city's cycling strategy.

See also:

http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6223{Data Collection, Evaluation, Documentation and Communication as Link}

CIVITAS (2016) Smart Choices for Cities: Cycling in the City (see Page 21)

smart_choices_for_the_city_cycling_in_the_city
English
(2.19 MB - PDF)
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Sustrans (2014) Sustrans design manual chapter 16: Monitoring and evaluation of walking and cycling

sustrans_monitoring_and_evaluation
English
(1.27 MB - PDF)
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Technopolis (2016) “Evaluating the economic and social impacts of cycling infrastructure: considerations for an evaluation framework”, a report for the Department of Transport (UK)2

Urban Systems (2013), “Bicycle Account Guidelines”, a report for The League of American Cyclists3

UK guidance on monitoring and evaluating transport investments

City of Copenhagen (2016) Copenhagen’s Bicycle Accounts

copenhagen_bicycle-account-2016
English
(6.66 MB - PDF)
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Sustrans (2017) Bike Life reports ‘Bike Life’ reports for some UK cities

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[collapsed title=Delivering quality cycling infrastructure that is fit for purpose]

This final point reiterates the need to ensure that cities have undertaken the necessary steps to select and design cycle infrastructure meeting high-quality standards and that meets the needs of users.

  • CASE STUDY HIGHLIGHT - Seville, Spain has developed a network of fully segregated bicycle paths, connecting the main trip attractors and residential areas within the city. It addresses the basic design principles, including safety (segregated from traffic), cohesion and attractiveness (similar recognisable design throughout the network), directness (avoiding detours and multiple street crossings), comfort (including bicycle parking facilities, uniform pavement, etc).

See also:

http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6230{Selecting cycle measures for your city - Further considerations for applicability as Link}

http://ec.europa.eu/transport/node/6207{Core quality design principles for cycle infrastructure and networks as Link}

CM Bike (2014) Developing a cycling network and general design standards for bicycle infrastructure

cmb_fact_sheet_h-01_cycling_network
English
(981.68 KB - PDF)
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KonSULT Decision Makers Guidebook

CIVITAS (2016) Smart Choices for Cities: Cycling in the City (see Page 14)

smart_choices_for_the_city_cycling_in_the_city
English
(2.19 MB - PDF)
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Cambridge Cycling Campaign (2014) Making space for cycling, Cyclenation

cycle_nation_making_space_for_cycling
English
(2.98 MB - PDF)
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