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Mobility and Transport

Rail passenger rights

On this webpage, you will find relevant links to legislation, policies and studies on rail passenger rights. For specific information and advice on your rights as a rail passenger and how to claim these rights, please visit 'Your Europe'.

EU legislation lays the foundation for helping passengers understand and exercise their rights when travelling by rail in the EU. The single market for passenger rail transport is currently in development and the rail industry should benefit from a level playing field. A high quality of rail services and the protection of users' rights are essential to fulfil the objective to increase the share of rail transport in comparison to other modes of transport.


The current Regulation on passenger rights can be found through this link: Regulation 1371/2007 on rail passengers’ rights and obligations.

The new rail passenger rights Regulation, which entered into force in June 2021 and will apply as of 7 June 2023, is available at: Regulation 2021/782 on rail passengers’ rights and obligations

Communication from the Commission — Interpretative Guidelineson Regulation (EC) No 1371/2007 of the European Parliament and of the Council on rail passengers' rights and obligations.

National exemptions from the scope of Regulation (EC) No 1371/2007 on rail passenger rights

In principle, EU rail passenger rights are applicable to all rail passenger services in all EU Member States. However, under Article 2 of Regulation (EC) No 1371/2007 Member States may exempt certain types of services from the application of these rights.

Report: Exemptions granted by Member States under Regulation (EC) No 1371/2007 on rail passengers' rights and obligations, COM/2015/0117 final.

Member States may, on a transparent and non-discriminatory basis, grant:

  • an exemption for their purely domestic railway services for a period of no longer than five years, which may be renewed twice for a maximum of five years on each occasion (maximum 15 years);
  • a permanent exemption for urban, suburban and regional services;
  • an exemption for a period of five years, which may be renewed, in case of rail services a significant part of which is operated outside the Community.

Mandatory provisions of the Regulation

Nonetheless, certain provisions of the Regulation are mandatory for all kinds of railway services within the European Union and cannot be derogated from:

rules on availability of tickets, through tickets and reservations (Art 9); liability of railway undertakings for passengers and their luggage (Art 11); minimum level of insurance for railway companies (Art 12); right to transport of passengers with reduced mobility (Art 19); information on accessibility of rail services (Art 20(1)); and obligations on passengers' personal security (Art 26).

Member States with exemptions

The table below provides information about granted or intended national exemptions of which Member States have informed the Commission. The table also indicates to what Articles of the Regulation the exemptions refer to, if applicable.

The Commission constantly updates this information based on contributions from Member States.

In case of doubt, please contact the National Enforcement Body for the Rail Passenger Rights Regulation (NEB Rail) for the country concerned.

Summary Table - Information on national exemptions from Regulation (EC) No 1371/2007 on rail passengers’ rights and obligations

Modernising the European rules on rail passenger rights

EU legislation for Rail Passenger Rights entered into force on 3 December 2009. After the European Commission proposed to modernise the rules in 2017, the new Rail Passenger Rights Regulation has been formally adopted and signed by the European Parliament and the Council on 29 April 2021, and was published in the Official Journal on 12 May 2021. The Regulation has entered into force on the 20th day after its publication, and is applicable 24 months later, i.e. as of 7 June 2023.

The relevant links in the modernisation of the rail passenger rights can be found below.

Proposal: Regulation on rail passengers’ rights and obligations

28/09/2017: European Commission modernises European rail passenger rights

29/04/2021 (updated 13/08/2021): European Commission welcomes adoption of new rail passenger rights

New Rail Passenger Rights Regulation Q&A

Policy and other related documents

The Commission is after article 36 in Regulation 1371/2007 required to report to the European Parliament and to the Council on the implementation and the results of the Regulation. A link to this report is found below along with a link to a summary of EU legal provisions on rail passenger rights and interpretative guidelines on the 1371/2007 Regulation.

Report: Application of Regulation 1371/2007 on Rail Passengers' rights and obligations  

Summary of EU legal provisions on rail passenger rights

Useful links and documents

Your Europe - detailed information and advice on your rights as a rail passenger and how you can claim them.

Online enquiry form : Enquiry form for Rail passengers

National Enforcement Bodies (NEBs)

According to Article 28(2) of Regulation (EC) No 1371/2007, the railway undertakings' reports on service quality shall be made available on the ERA website.