The objectives of this study, carried out by external contractors for the European Commission, are to:
- Map existing policy recommendations and measures to accompany the transition to automation and digitalisation for the labour force in transport;
- Analyse the level of awareness and preparedness of transport stakeholders;
- Explore transport stakeholders’ need for guidance and accompanying measures;
- Explore the possible range of measures to accompany the transition towards automation and digitalisation in transport and identify good practice examples.
The methodology for the study includes literature review, stakeholder interviews and surveys of social partners, companies and workers. Moreover, a participatory workshop with transport stakeholders was organised.
The study developed a typology of different measures that can be used to support the transition to automation and digitalisation in the transport sector. It consists of (i) training programmes; (ii) social funds; (iii) national legislative acts on labour relations, concerning the social implications of automation and/or digitalisation; (iv) sectoral collective agreements on the social implications of automation and/or digitalisation; (v) enhancing channels for dialogue between employers and workers; (vi) social dialogue at EU level; (vii) measures addressing challenges related to the platform economy; and (viii) creating awareness and developing mentoring programmes. Within these eight groups of measures, a total of 26 individual measures and ten good practice examples are described in detail in the study.
On the basis of the lessons learnt from these identified measures and good practice examples, the authors of the study then make a number of policy-oriented recommendations to stakeholders, including the European Commission, on how to manage the transition to automation and digitalisation for the labour force in the transport sector. These 12 policy-oriented recommendations take account of the analysis of the level of awareness and preparedness of transport stakeholders, and of their need for guidance and accompanying measures.
The results of the study, which reflect the views only of the authors, will be discussed with all relevant stakeholders – policy-makers, social partners, etc. They will feed, amongst other input, into the preparation of Action 69 of the Sustainable and Smart Mobility Strategy (by 2023, issue recommendations for the transition to automation and digitalisation and on means to mitigate their impact on the transport workforce).