Mature and stable ERTMS specifications have been introduced in commercial projects. Today there are mature and stable ERTMS technical specifications that are used in commercial projects all around Europe, as has been recognised in the
(Memorandum of Understanding). Any train equipped with the latest ERTMS developments will be able to circulate throughout the different European sections equipped with ERTMS reference specifications.
ERTMS is already in use in commercial projects.
European Corridors are the heart of the ERTMS deployment. ERTMS is now in a phase of deployment throughout Europe. To facilitate this process, a number of transport corridors have been selected as necessary for the early deployment of ERTMS.
There is a positive business case for ERTMS on all core network corridors according to the “ERTMS business case on the 9 core network corridors” document. The results per corridor are relatively similar, although some differences can be observed, mainly due to the level of ERTMS deployed on each corridor, the national values used for trackside deployment and maintenance costs, the current status of the national fleet and traffic growth assumptions.
Matthias Ruete, the European coordinator for the ERTMS. Matthias Ruete, who took over from Karel Vinck in 2019, is the European ERTMS coordinator, working with the rail sector to further deploy ERTMS along the EU's rail network. The coordinator gives the necessary political impetus for the ERTMS project and the realisation of the MoU.
ERTMS Deployment – CNC
Number of ERTMS On-Board Units (OBU) contracted and in operation
In Europe: 10,449 contracted OBUs, 4,266 of which with Baseline 3 to be delivered in the coming years. Germany is the frontrunner, with 2,152 OBUs, followed by Switzerland with 1,402 contracted OBUs.
Out of the 10,449 contracted OBUs: 3,020 OBUs are currently in operation, 1,016 of which are with Baseline 3. Switzerland is in the leading position with 610 OBUs, followed by Austria with 462 OBUs and Spain with 448 OBUs in operation. (source: UNIFE – UNISIG databases)
The European Deployment Plan
The ERTMS European Deployment Plan (EDP) sets deadlines for the implementation of ERTMS and its aim is to ensure the progressive deployment of ERTMS along the main European rail routes.
The currently applicable EDP is included in the Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2017/6 of 5 January 2017 on the European Rail Traffic Management System European deployment plan. The ERTMS EDP sets out deadlines for deploying ERTMS on some sections of the Core Network Corridors (CNCs) for the 2017-2023 period.
Note: 264 km planned in the EDP between 2020 and 2023 are in operation and 214 km are planned beyond 2023.
This Regulation lays down the timetable for the deployment of ERTMS on core network corridors (CNC) as set out in its Annex I schemes.
Within the EDP, full compliance with the Technical Specifications for Interoperability Control Command and Signalling 2016/919/EC (CCS TSI) is a prerequisite. In this CCS TSI, the rules for the deployment of the system in the vehicles are also included. With regard to rolling stock, Commission Regulation (EU) 2016/919 states that new vehicles authorised to be put into service for the first time shall be equipped with ERTMS and, by 2019, any new vehicle to be equipped with ERTMS should implement Baseline 3 specifications. This regulation includes some exceptions to these rules (e.g. new shunting locomotives do not have to be equipped with ERTMS).
Deployment of ERTMS On-Board Units on the CNCs
The business case analysis demonstrates that the best deployment strategy at corridor level is a dual onboard strategy.
Therefore, the whole fleet operating on CNCs has to be equipped with ERTMS by 2030.
In countries where a large part of the network is covered by CNCs, 100% of the fleet must be equipped.
In countries where a large part of the network is still without CNCs, the size of the fleet to be equipped depends on the scenario.
Vehicles can be equipped via either renewal (e.g. if the vehicle is older than 30 years before 2030) or retrofitting.
Depending on the scenario adopted:
- In 2022: 9,600 – 12,400 vehicles equipped.
- In 2030: 27,600 – 38,500 vehicles equipped.
In 2009, the first EDP for ERTMS was adopted by the European Commission (Commission Decision 2009/561/EC) and included the geographical scope of the 6 ERTMS Corridors, named A to F. The dates for their deployment were foreseen no further than 2020. In fact, the basis of this EC Decision and the EDP was the submission of the national ERTMS deployment plans by the Member States to the Commission in 2007. The EDP does not include all national plans, but it focuses on the most critical stretches of European interest:
In 2010, the Rail Freight Corridor regulation (Regulation 913/2010) was published. This regulation concluded with the need for the Rail Freight Corridors to be aligned with ERTMS Corridors, because this regulation describes the ERTMS as the way to improve the efficiency of rail freight transport. This regulation is included under the scope of the European Rail Network for Competitive Freight.
This regulation defines nine initial corridors and establishes the RFC structure and governing bodies. It also addresses timetabling and capacity allocation issues. However, no associated deployment plan for the RFC is included. Instead, within the corridor-governing structure, the obligation to publish an implementation plan, including an interoperability chapter, is defined. This statement can be found in the
Handbook on the Regulation concerning a European rail network for competitive freight (Regulation EC 913/2010)
The following are the 9 RFCs:
Rail Freight Corridors Description
Sines-Lisbon/Leixões — Madrid-Medina del Campo/ Bilbao/San Sebastian-Irun- Bordeaux-Paris/Le Havre/Metz Sines-Elvas/Algeciras
Gdynia-Katowice-Ostrava/Žilina-Bratislava/Vienna/ Klagenfurt-Udine-Venice/ Trieste/ /Bologna/Ravenna/ Graz-Maribor-Ljubljana-Koper/Trieste
Almería-Valencia/Madrid-Zaragoza/Barcelona-Marseille- Lyon-Turin-Milan-Verona-Padua/Venice-Trieste/Koper- Ljubljana-Budapest-Zahony (Hungarian-Ukrainian border)
Bucharest-Constanta Prague-Vienna/Bratislava-Budapest — Vidin-Sofia-Thessaloniki-Athens
Bremerhaven/Rotterdam/Antwerp-Aachen/Berlin-Warsaw- Terespol (Poland-Belarus border)/Kaunas
Prague-Horní Lideč-Žilina-Košice-Čierna nad Tisou (Slovak/ Ukrainian border)
In 2013, the TEN-T regulation (Reg. 1315/2013) established guidelines and set out the priorities for the development of a trans-European transport network. The TEN-T guidelines established ERTMS as one of the priorities for railway infrastructure development and set a deadline for its deployment on the Core Network by 2030 and on the Comprehensive Network by 2050.
Also, in 2013, the Connecting Europe Facility Regulation (Reg. 1316/2013) set out the rules for awarding EU financial support for TEN-T priority projects and the maximum limits of EU co-financing per project type. It also included a pre-identified list of projects where most CEF investments will be placed.
In 2015, the ERTMS Coordinator indicated in the Work Plan (May 2015) that the EDP adopted in 2009 needed to be adapted to reality, and it created an ambitious and pragmatic plan with clearly defined priorities within the Corridors with a definite time limit of 2030. The ERTMS implementation experiences available at the time were very few at both national and European levels. The national deployment plans (dating back to 2007) had turned out to be too optimistic and, to make matters worse, a severe economic crisis was hampering infrastructure activities in Europe, delaying the implementation. Despite the legislative actions of the EC and the significant provision of EU funding, deployment on corridors is behind the expected schedule and results in an uncoordinated and irregular deployment, which is the main reason a new EDP with binding updated dates was necessary.
That is why the EC has identified the need to integrate the ERTMS EDP into a broader context and ensure consistency not only with the RFC regulations but also with the TEN – T and the Connecting Europe Facility regulation. This is the purpose of the current EDP 2017/6/EC.
To ensure that each corridor is effectively and efficiently developed, each corridor is managed by a European Coordinator. The ERTMS coordinator, Mr Matthias Ruete, was also appointed to speed up the implementation of ERTMS throughout Europe. The coordinator’s duties include producing an ERTMS Work Plan along with the Member States involved, supporting and monitoring the implementation of the Work Plan and highlighting difficulties, among other things.
These corridors link public and private resources and concentrate EU support from the CEF, to specifically remove bottlenecks, build missing border crossings and connections and promote modal integration and interoperability. ERTMS is a CEF horizontal priority.
The National Implementation Plans (NIPs)
The Member States shall draw up a National Implementation Plan, describing their actions to comply with the CCS TSI, in accordance with Section 7.4.4, setting out the steps to be followed for the implementation of fully interoperable 'control-command and signalling' subsystems.
Member States had an obligation to submit their National Implementation Plans by 5th July 2017 and update them at least every five years.
The first national implementation plans were submitted in 2017. A summary of the main issues contained is provided in the
Currently, the level of compliance of the NIPs to the EDP is relatively high, including some networks where the expected dates have been brought forward. Plans for the removal of class B systems facilitate efficient ERTMS deployment.
For the complete list of ERTMS NIPs, please refer to the section: National Implementation Plan in each country.